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23Oct2021 - 01:04 55 AM
 
 
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Discovery & Documentary

Discovery Channel-Seven Wonders Of The World:Babylon Hanging Graden & The Temple Of Artemis 历史人文系列-世界七大奇观:巴比伦空中花园&阿尔忒弥斯神殿 DVD
Code : C00253
Price : MYR29.90 SGD14.20 USD11.66 RMB80.73 MYR23.92 / SGD11.36 / USD9.33 / RMB64.58
Weight :100 g
Genre :History/ Biography/ Religion ,
Subtitle :Chinese , English ,
Language :Chinese/ Mandarin , English ,
Video Format :NTSC ,
Discs :1
Region Code :ALL ,
Model :DVD ,
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Hanging Gardens of Babylon

The Hanging Gardens of Babylon (also known as Hanging Gardens of Semiramis) (near present-day Al Hillah in Iraq) are considered one of the original Seven Wonders of the World. They were built by Nebuchadnezzar II around 600 BC. He is reported to have constructed the gardens to please his wife, Amytis of Media, who longed for the trees and fragrant plants of her homeland.[1] The gardens were destroyed in an earthquake after the 1st century BC.



The lush Hanging Gardens are extensively documented by Greek historians such as Strabo and Diodorus Siculus. Through the ages, the location may have been confused with gardens that existed at Nineveh, since tablets from there clearly show gardens. Writings on these tablets describe the possible use of something similar to an Archimedes' screw as a process of raising the water to the required height.

















Temple of Artemis

The sacred site at Ephesus was far older than the Artemision. Pausanias[8] understood the shrine of Artemis there to be very ancient. He states with certainty that it antedated the Ionic immigration by many years, being older even than the oracular shrine of Apollo at Didyma. He said that the pre-Ionic inhabitants of the city were Leleges and Lydians. Callimachus, in his Hymn to Artemis, attributed the origin of the temenos at Ephesus to the Amazons, whose worship he imagines already centered upon an image {bretas).



Pre-World War I excavations by David George Hogarth,[9] who identified three successive temples overlying one another on the site, and corrective re-excavations in 1987-88[10] have confirmed Pausanias' report.



Test holes have confirmed that the site was occupied as early as the Bronze Age, with a sequence of pottery finds that extend forward to Middle Geometric times, when the clay-floored peripteral temple was constructed, in the second half of the eighth century BCE.[11] The peripteral temple at Ephesus was the earliest example of a peripteral type on the coast of Asia Minor, and perhaps the earliest Greek temple surrounded by colonnades.



In the seventh century, a flood[12] destroyed the temple, depositing over half a meter of sand and scattering flotsam over the former floor of hard-packed clay. In the flood debris were the remains of a carved ivory plaque of a griffon and the Tree of Life, apparently North Syrian. More importantly, flood deposits buried in place a hoard against the north wall that included drilled amber tear-shaped drops with elliptical cross-sections, which had once dressed the wooden effigy of the Lady of Ephesus; the xoanon must have been destroyed in the flood. Bammer notes that though the flood-prone site was raised about two metres between the eighth and sixth centuries, and a further 2.4 m between the sixth and the fourth, the site was retained: "this indicates that maintaining the identity of the actual location played an important role in the sacred organization" (Bammer 1990:144).



The new temple, now built of marble, with its peripteral columns doubled to make a wide ceremonial passage round the cella, was designed and constructed around 550 BCE by the Cretan architect Chersiphron and his son Metagenes. A new ebony or grapewood cult statue was sculpted by Endoios,[13] and a naiskos to house it was erected east of the open-air altar.



This enriched reconstruction was built at the expense of Croesus, the wealthy king of Lydia.[14] The rich foundation deposit of more than a thousand items has been recovered: it includes what may be the earliest coins of the silver-gold alloy electrum. Fragments of the bas-reliefs on the lowest drums of Croesus' temple, preserved in the British Museum, show that the enriched columns of the later temple, of which a few survive (illustration, below left) were versions of the earlier feature. Marshy ground was selected for the building site as a precaution against future earthquakes, according to Pliny the Elder.[15] The temple became a tourist attraction, visited by merchants, kings, and sightseers, many of whom paid homage to Artemis in the form of jewelry and various goods. Its splendor also attracted many worshipers, many of whom formed the cult of Artemis.



Croesus' temple was a widely respected place of refuge, a tradition that was linked in myth with the Amazons who took refuge there, both from Heracles and from Dionysus. 巴比伦的空中花园

希臘文獻中的記載是考古的主要資科。第一位提及這座花園的歷史是大約在西元前270年的一位巴比倫作家貝羅索斯(Berossus)。他記載了尼布甲尼撤二世興建的說法,一座以石質地基或是平臺呈現群山風光的宮殿,草木種植於其上。貝羅索斯說,這就是人們說是用來取悅王后的空中花園。這些記載中都大都能夠令人相信,國家之間的結盟經常以皇室聯婚來加以隱固,尼布甲尼撤二世極有可能迎娶了一位伊朗公主。貝羅索斯顯然知道一些關於尼布甲尼撤二世的記載,記載描述了他的部宮殿:它和山的高度差不多,部分為石製,傳說是十五天內完成的。雖然沒有特別提到花園,但確實是一座宮殿。



希臘人記載了更多的細節。其中的一說是這座花園有120平方公尺,高約有25公尺,相當於城牆的高度。花園像劇院般呈現梯狀,其中有很多小房間。底部是由很多支撐著石樑的牆所構成,每面牆大約寬7公尺,每面之間的距離有3公尺。石樑上面依照成分可分為三層:包括蘆葦的瀝青、兩層磚石,以及最上面覆蓋的船。花園的土壤覆蓋在頂部,樹木所需的水分從下方的河流經由隱藏的裝置供給等說法,這些細節在後文有更詳盡的敘述。



其他的相關古代歷史文獻:有一本敘述有二十面支撐的牆。還有一本說這座花園是建在磚塊和瀝青建成的穹窿上;阿基米德螺旋裝置 (Archimedean screws)沿著梯級供應流水。又有一本描繪底部結構的石質圓柱支撐著木質橫樑:這些橫樑是棗棕櫚的樹幹,除了不會腐朽外,還能夠供給上面花園樹木的根部養分,整個地區都是用一套泉水和渠道構成的系統灌溉的。後文關於空中花園的外觀及建造過程即參照這些文獻記載與考證推測而成。



希羅多德在他的著作中並沒有提到這座空中花園(這也許是有人猜測他未到過巴比倫的另一項理由)。公元前一世紀中葉,西西里島歷史學家戴奧多勒斯,以及五十年後在羅馬皇帝奧古斯都(Augustus)在位,時代「地理」(Geography)一書的著者斯特雷波(Strabo),都曾先後描寫過空中花園的情形。傳說共有二︰一說是亞述國王阿達德-尼拉里三世(Adad-nirari III 西元前810∼前783年在位)之母薩穆-拉馬特(Sammu-ramat)所建;另一說是在前6世纪由新巴比倫王國的尼布甲尼撒二世(Nebuchadnezzar)(西元前605-562年)在巴比倫城為博取其對故國山川花木的懷念而患思鄉病的波斯籍王妃安美依迪絲(Amyitis)的歡心在十五天內修建的。當時公主說:「我的家鄉山巒疊翠,花草叢生。而這裡是一望無際的巴比倫平原,連個小山丘都找不到,我多麼渴望能再見到我們家鄉的山嶺和盤山小道啊」!不過也有些記載,雖然提到了空中花園,但認為傳說中的空中花園並不是由尼布甲尼撒二世建造的,而是一位敘利亞國王為取悅他的一個愛妃而特意修築的。空中花園估計位於幼發拉底河東面,伊拉克首都巴格達以南50里外左右,四大文明古國之一巴比倫中。然而,到目前為止,在所發現的巴比倫楔形文字的泥版文書,還沒有找到確切的文獻記載。因此,考古學家的解釋是否正確仍需進一步研究。令人遺憾的是,空中花園和巴比倫文明其他的著名建築一樣,早已湮沒在滾滾黃沙之中。我們要了解空中花園,只能通過後世的歷史記載和近代的考古發掘。許多歷史學者更懷疑空中花園是否真實存在過。



巴比倫空中花園(Hanging Gardens of Babylon) 當然不是吊於空中,這個名字純粹是是出自對希臘文paradeisos 一字的意譯。純粹是因為人們把原本除有「吊」之外,還有「突出」之意的希臘文「kremastos」及拉丁文「pensilis」錯誤翻譯所致。其實, paradeisos一字直譯應譯作「梯形高台」,所謂「空中花園」實際上就是建築在「梯形高台」上的花園。希臘文paradeisos(空中花園)後來蛻變為英文paradise(天堂)。



古代描繪空中花園的人都從未涉足巴比倫,只知東方有座奇妙的花園,波斯王稱之為天堂,而在兩相湊合下,形成遙遠巴比倫的夢幻花園。巴比倫文獻中,空中花園僅是一個謎,甚至沒有一篇提及空中花園。



歷史學家認為:「從壯大與寬廣這一點看,空中花園顯然遠不及尼布甲尼撒二世宮殿,但是它的美麗、優雅,以及難以抗拒的魅力,郤是其他建築所望塵莫及的」。







阿尔忒弥斯神殿

亚底米神庙(Ἀρτεμίσιον,Artemision),位於土耳其以弗所,经过120年的建造,于公元前550年建成。亚底米神庙的建造由吕底亚王国的克罗索斯发动,后来在波斯的阿契美尼德帝国时建成。



亚底米神庙是希腊神话阿尔忒弥斯女神的神庙(圣经中翻译为亚底米,即罗马神话的月亮女神狄安娜),位列世界七大奇迹之一,长425尺,宽230尺,有126根高60尺大理石柱。据称建筑时间前后长达220年(相比之下,大希律王建耶路撒冷圣殿也只用了46年)。公元前356年7月21日,神庙毁于大火。



传说亚历山大大帝诞生于神庙被毁的同一天。

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